Blog
Author - Hardik Saxena

Abstract —
Microclimate refers to a climate of a small region. As the name suggests, Micro means small and the term signifies the effect of climate on a smaller regions due to surroundings of that area. Microclimate effects the environment. For example, Concrete and masonry absorbs heat from sun and slowly radiate which increases the temperature. This is called urban heat island effect. Now having Non radiating shading devices like trees and plants nearby can help in regulating the temperature.

Keywords —
Microclimate , Green buildings , Landscaping , Passive cooling , energy conservation , sustainable development.

I. INTRODUCTION
There are certain factors which plays an important role in microclimate.
1. Orientation of building
2. Location of neighboring objects
3. Surrounding landscape
The micro climate can also determine the shape of the building and how it sits on the site and the locations of your rooms within the building.
An ideal site for the designing an energy efficient home would be one that has full solar access and protection from the harsh elements of nature.

Zones
The zoning and orientation of the building can have a strong impact on the energy consumption pattern.
Shape can have a strong influence on energy consumption performances.

For instance, it can determine the amount of solar radiation falling onto the external surface area. This in return can increase savings on energy, for example, heating and lighting. The form of the building should take into account the integration of technology, to maximise efficiency.

Other affected factors are pressure distribution throughout the building and wind patterns etc. Microclimatic conditions depend on such factors as temperature, humidity, wind and turbulence, dew, frost, heat balance, and evaporation. The effect of soil type on microclimates is considerable. Sandy soils and other coarse, loose, and dry soils, for example, are subject to high maximum and low minimum surface temperatures. The surface reflection characteristics of soils are also important; soils of lighter colour reflect more and respond less to daily heating. Another feature of the microclimate is the ability of the soil to absorb and retain moisture, which depends on the composition of the soil and its use. Vegetation is also integral as it controls the flux of water vapour into the air through transpiration. In addition, vegetation can insulate the soil below and reduce temperature variability. Sites of exposed soil then exhibit the greatest temperature variability.

II. EXPERIMENT
The experiment is conducted on the round building of Our University having identical rooms . the study is carried out to determine the temperature variation due to the microclimate and landscaping of the surrounding area . The three rooms are taken into observation . One with complete shading and surrounded with trees and plantation and one with partial shading and other one with no shading on walls by plants and trees .

Room Layout
The measurements are as follows :-

The instrument used for temperature measurement is thermocouple. The thermocouple is automatic and automatically gives temperature by converting potential difference across resistance wire . No manual calculations required and hence made working with it easier.The least count of thermocouple is. 1 degree Celcius. Since, Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate.

It is cold from October to February while the scorching sun irritates the land from March to September. There are distinct temperature range variations diurnal and seasonally throughout the state, revealing the most typical phenomenon of the warm-dry continental climate. The summer begins in the month of March while the temperature keeps rising progressively through April, May and June. West of Rajasthan and the eastern side of Aravalli Range, in the region of Bikaner, Phalodi, Jaisalmer and Barmer, the maximum daily temperature hovers around 40°C to 45°C. Sometimes, it even reaches as high a 49°C during the summer months. Nights of summers see a considerable temperature fall with a minimum daily temperature around 20°C to 29°C. However, Udaipur and Mount Abu have a pleasanter climate in summers with a relatively lower daily maximum temperature that reaches 38°C and 31.5°C, respectively. The daily minimum temperature at nights for these two stations hovers around 25°C and 22°C, respectively. The major portion of the state that consists of the arid west and the semi-arid mid-west has an average maximum of 45°C in June.

III. READINGS AND OBSERVATIONS
The readings are taken at three different times for continuously 5 days of a week . However weather keep changing day by day but normally it remains sunny during summers here in jaipur . The time at which readings were taken is 9:00 AM , 12:00 noon and 4:00 PM . it will give the clear idea of rise , maximum and falling of temperature during evening time as well . however , the maximum amount of photosynthesis observed during DOWN DUST PERIOD , normally occur at early morning and evening time , and result is expected to be maximum during this period only .
The temperature recorded are formulated in the table below .


ROOM TEMPERATURE WITH THERMOCOUPLE

Time I. Temperature Readings
Room with shadings of trees Partial shading of trees No. shading of trees
9:00 32.6 C 33.2 35.1
12:00 34.8 37.2 39.0
16:00 35.2 38.1 39.8

Now, On closely observing the temperature , it is found out that the temperature recorded is higher than the maximum and lowest temperature recorded . this is perhaps due to the Urban heat island effect . however , it is clearly visible that the rooms with plantation as shading and microclimate lowers the temperature to an extent , which will surely reduce the load on electricity inside . we just studied the trees and plants grown around the rooms . if the rooms and shadings devices are made accordingly the sun path and direction of the area the effect will be much more greater than the observed.

IV. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

  1. The trees around the rooms keeps environment cooler and conserves energy envelope of the building and outside Habitable.
  2. The load on electricity automatically reduced to a greater extent. as lesser power consumed during artificial cooling or say ACTIVE COOLING OF THE ROOM by air cconditioners, fans coolers etc.
  3. This effects the economy of the region to a great extent. developing countries spent a lot of amount in the energy production using coal and fossils fuels. it surely indirectly effects the economy of the country.
  4. When the world is facing a great threat of global warming , it is a development to the sustainability , as it helps in reducing green house emission and preventing the green house effect as well by purifying the air by using trees.
  5. Also landscaping provides loose soil around so than also helps in the water consumptions. regions like INDIA especially western part suffers drought and Hence , it can proved to be a boon if adopted on a Large scale.
  6. Also the trees and greenery around provides an eye candy and freshness. it also protects from occupational health diseases.
  7. LEEDS also provide Credits for microclimate and landscaping. and Hence also improves the green building rating . Corporates try hard to earn credits for green buildings Hence it can be very helpful to them and economical too.